o Goleman (2001) emotional intelligence or (EI) refers to the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and others. In the scientific literature, the basic components of the concept of emotional intelligence were elaborated well over a decade ago (Bar-On, 1988; Gardner, 1983; Salovey & Mayer, 1990), with precursors that extend back to the beginning of the 20th century (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). The model of emotional intelligence was first proposed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1990). Although the basic definition of emotional intelligence is defined in Salovey and Mayer’s article on Emotional Intelligence (1990, p. 189), another model of emotional intelligence was reported in Reuven Bar-On’s doctoral dissertation in1988.
In 1985, Dr. Reuven Bar-On developed an approach for evaluating general intelligence. After 17 years of research, Dr. Bar-On developed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Bar-On EQ-i: YV). This inventory is the first scientifically developed and validated measure of Emotional Intelligence that reflects an individual’s ability to cope with daily challenges and helps to predict one’s success in life, including professional and personal pursuits (Abraham, 1999). In 1996, Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version, which measured 5 components and 15 sub-components of EI as follows, was published by the Multi-Health Systems:
1. Intrapersonal: assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence, and emotional self-awareness
2. Interpersonal: interpersonal relationships, social responsibility, and empathy
3. Adaptability: problem solving, reality testing, and flexibility
4. Stress Management: impulse control and stress tolerance
5. General Mood: happiness and optimism
Although a comprehensive theory of emotional intelligence was provided by Salovey and Mayer (1990, p. 189), and another pioneering model of emotional intelligence was proposed in the 1980s by Reuven Bar-On (1988), other theorists have proposed variations on the same idea. Goleman has adopted Salovey and Mayer’s model into a version for understanding how these talents matter in the work life.
Goleman’s (1995) adaptation includes the following five basic emotional and social competencies:
1. Self-awareness: knowing what we are feeling at the moment, and using those preferences to guide our decision making; having a realistic assessment of our own abilities and a well-grounded sense of self-confidence.
2. Self-regulation: handling our emotions so that they facilitate rather than interfere with the task at hand; being conscientious and delaying gratification to pursue goals; recovering well from emotional distress.
3. Motivation: using our deepest preferences to move and guide us toward our goals, to help us take initiative and strive to improve, and to persevere in the face of setbacks and frustrations.
4. Empathy: sensing what people are feeling, being able to take their perspective, and cultivating rapport and attunement with a broad diversity of people. Empathy also refers to the identification with the state of another person. It is believed that empathy allows us to “climb out of our own skin and into the skin of another” (Licknoma, 1991, p. 31).
5. Social Skills: handling emotions in relationships well and accurately reading social situations and networks; interacting smoothly; using these skills to persuade and lead, negotiate and settle disputes, for cooperation and teamwork.
In the Goleman (1995) model, a similar expanded definition of emotional intelligence is used, referring to emotional intelligence as a set of learned competencies. Emotional intelligence competence is then defined as “an ability to recognize, understand, and use emotional information about oneself or others that leads to or causes effective or superior performance” (Boyatzis & Sala, 2004, p. 149). A distinction is further made between five main competency clusters (with various sub competencies): self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Given the trait-like nature of the mixed model, some researchers have suggested using terms such as “trait emotional intelligence,” “emotional self-efficacy” (Petrides & Furnham, 2003), or “emotional self-confidence” (Roberts, Schulze, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2005).
Generally, a distinction is made between two conceptualizations of emotional intelligence; namely, an ability emotional intelligence model and a trait emotional intelligence model (e.g., Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2007). The first model conceptualizes emotional intelligence as ability similar to cognitive ability and measures it via performance-based tests. In this paradigm, emotional intelligence is viewed as another legitimate type of intelligence. Therefore, this model is also referred to as emotional cognitive ability or information processing emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is then defined as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189). As cited in Filip Lievens and David Chan (2009), the higher order construct of emotional intelligence is broken down into four branches. The first branch—emotional identification, perception, and expression—deals with the ability to accurately perceive emotions in others’ verbal and nonverbal behavior. The second branch is emotional facilitation of thought which refers to the ability to use emotions to assist thinking and problem-solving. Third, emotional understanding denotes the ability to analyze feelings, discriminate among emotions, and think about their outcomes. Finally, emotional management deals with abilities related to maintaining or changing emotions. The second model, the trait EQ model, views emotional intelligence as similar to personality and assesses it via self-report. In this model, emotional intelligence is defined as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar-On, 1997, p. 16). So, the question of why some people become successful while others fail despite their natural gifts, abilities, and talents has provoked inquiries into those qualities that determine success (Richburge & Fletcher, 2002).
Goleman reports that IQ contributes only about 20% to success in life and other forces contribute the rest. In the 1960s, psychologist John Block used the concept “ego resilience” rather than emotional intelligence, but notes that the main components of emotional intelligence include emotional self-regulation, adaptive impulse control, a sense of self-efficacy, and social intelligence. Using these main elements to measure emotional intelligence is equivalent to using SAT scores to measure intelligence (Goleman, 1995, p. 135).
According to Byron Stock & Associates (1999), emotional intelligence does not mean being “soft”; rather, it means being intelligent about one’s emotions. He believes that emotional intelligence reflects different ways of being “smart.” Stock and Associates (1999) suggest that emotional intelligence is one’s ability to acquire and apply knowledge from his emotions and the emotions of others in order to be more successful and lead a more fulfilling life. Hence, emotional intelligence refers to the capacity to recognize one’s own feelings and those of others to motivate oneself, and to manage emotions well in our relationships. It explains abilities that are distinct from, but complementary to, academic intelligence, the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ. In fact, many people who are smart, but lack emotional intelligence, end up working for people who have lower IQ’s than they but who excel in emotional intelligence skills (Goleman, 1998a).
nt meta-analytic research (Van Rooy, Viswesvaran, & Pluta, 2005) has demonstrated that Emotional intelligence measures based on the mixed model overlapped considerably with personality trait scores but not with cognitive ability. Conversely, emotional intelligence measures developed according to an emotional intelligence ability model correlated more with cognitive ability and less with personality. Other research has clarified that ability model measures correlate especially with verbal (crystallized) ability, with correlations typically between .30 and .40 (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). So, some have posited that the term “emotional intelligence” should be replaced by the term “emotional knowledge” (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). In addition to the construct validity of emotional intelligence, the criterion-related validity has also been scrutinized. Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) conducted a meta-analysis of emotional intelligence measures (collapsing both models) for predicting performance. Their analysis of 59 independent empirical samples obtained a mean corrected correlation of .23. The validity of emotional intelligence measures was .24, .10, and .24 for predicting performance in occupational, academic, and life settings, respectively. However, a caveat is in order when interpreting the results of this meta-analysis as it included only a small number of studies using ability-based emotional intelligence instruments and a sizable number of studies using self-report measures of performance. As Zarafshan and Ardeshiri (August 2012) cited “emotional intelligence refers to the capacities to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and in others. EI can be as much powerful, and at times, more powerful than IQ in predicting success in various life challenges (Goleman, 1995). “In distinguishing successful people within a job category or profession, EI emerges as a stronger predictor than IQ of who, for instance, will become a star, salesperson, team head, or a top-rank leader,” (Goleman, 1995, p. 34) . Goleman states IQ can sort people before they start a career; it determines which fields or professions they can hold. To learn which individuals raise to the top or which individuals fail, however, IQ ‘short circuit’ and EI proves to be stronger predictor of success (Goleman, 1998, 2001).
As it is implied, generally, emotional intelligence manages your behavior, moving smoothly through social situations, and makes critical choices in the life. There are four emotional intelligence skills that are grouped under two primary competencies: personal competence and social competence.
Emotional intelligence is made up of four core skills as follows (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net):
• Self-Awareness is how accurately you can identify your emotions in the moment and understand your tendencies across time and situation.
• Self-Management is how you use awareness of your emotions to create the behavior that you want.
• Social Awareness is how well you read the emotions of other people.
• Relationship Management is how you use the first three emotional intelligence skills to manage your interactions with other people.
As the bellow graph shows, Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Intelligence (IQ), and Personality are not connected (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net):
“The above three concepts do not go together in any meaningful way. Emotional intelligence explains a fundamental element of your behavior that is unique from your intellect. In fact, you cannot determine someone’s IQ based on their EQ and vice versa. Intelligence is how quickly you absorb new information and it does not change throughout your life. Emotional intelligence is unique because it is a flexible skill that you can improve with practice. Therefore, anyone can develop a high degree of emotional intelligence” (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net).