er publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
• 1985 – Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, and tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
• 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
• 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
• 1995 – The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
To comprehend the ideas in the material is the main goal of reading. Thus, without comprehension, reading would be empty and meaningless. Reading comprehension is very crucial to the success of individuals during their education and beyond. To be successful in education, in work and even in hobbies, people must be able to understand the text that is ever present in the environment. Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994). This mental representation includes information relaing to the people, settings, actions and events either described explicitly or implied by the text (Garnham, 1996). When we are reading a text, we are unable to compute all the information presented to us, mainly because of processing limitations. We therefore construct a model of the situation, what can be referred to as a state of the world (Garnham & Oakhill, 1994), based on some elements presented to us and based on information stored in our long-term memory.
As Vygotsky (1978) suggests, reading is a mode of communication, and it is a social mediated language-learning activity. As a result, reading comprehension involves emotional processing and is essential to life success.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami (2006) defined Reading comprehension as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.
In the process of reading comprehension, readers use previous knowledge to handle the text and create new knowledge. The more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires the reader to be active, and to be able to evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, and evaluate his or her own understanding (Houtveen & van de Grift, 2006; Lau, 2006; Lau & Chan, 2003).
1.3 Statement of the problem
As Gardner (2006) states, in order to understand the complexity of language learning process, attention should be attached to internal mechanisms and social interpersonal interaction involved in this process. Therefore, emotional intelligence can be a great help since, as Coleman (2001) says, it not only serves as an international mechanism, but also interlocks with the external environment. Although variety factors are involved in comprehending a text, it seems that intelligence is an integral part of it. .But, what matter is that we most believe good comprehension of a text is mainly relates to the one`s previous knowledge and experiences not his/her intelligence. The issue is that whether intelligence is an abstract and passive factor in comprehending of a text or really a vital one. Therefore in this study, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension is supposed to be investigated to clarify the underlying intelligence areas related to reading comprehension.
1.4 Significance of the study
The result of this study will be useful for both teachers and learners. In other words, if the obtained results declare that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, the teachers and learners can deal with all points and matters that are crucial to improve their intelligence and comprehension. If not, because reading comprehension is a complex process in itself and we should not forget about the skills on which it depends, it will be concluded that having good comprehension is only as the result of one`s previous knowledge, experience and his/her familiarity with related strategies not having high intelligence. Therefore, the present research will consider this relation in order to help students to improve their comprehension of the text by being aware of the importance and power of their intelligence.
1.5 Objective of the study
Emotional intelligence is thought to be one of the factors affecting reading
comprehension. The objective of this research is to find whether there is any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension or not.
1.6 Research questions and hypotheses
1) Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension?
H0 1: There is no relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension.
1.7 Limitations and delimitations of the study
As all the studies have some limitations and delimitations, my study had its own as well, such as the number and gender of the participants and even their honesty in answering to the emotional intelligence test.
1.8 Definitions of key terms
1.8.1 Emotion: World Book Dictionary (1979) defines emotion as “a strong feeling of any kind. Hate, fear, excitement, anger, love, joy, and grief are emotions” (p. 690).
1.8.2 Intelligence: The ability to learn and know; quickness of understanding; intellect; mind (World Book Dictionary, 1979).
1.8.3 Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence is about intelligent use of emotions and utilizing the power or information contained in emotion to make effective decisions (Ciarrochi & Mayer, 2007). The EQ concept argues that Intelligence Quotient (IQ), or conventional intelligence, is too narrow and that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are.
Salovey and Mayer (1990) had something different and more restricted in mind when they introduced the term emotional intelligence several years later. For them, EI concerned the way in which an individual processes information about emotion and emotional responses. They identified emotional intelligence as the “ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189).
Goleman (1995) has defined emotional intelligence as including “abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration, to control impulses and delay gratification; to regulate one’s moods and keep distress from swapping the ability to think; to emphasize and to hope” (p. 34).
Golman (2001) defined Emotional intelligence as the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and others. “It is the ability to monitor one`s own and other`s feelings, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and actions”(Salovey & Mayer, 1990, pp. 185-211).
Serrat (2009) sees the emotional intelligence as an important factor in human resources in terms of “planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, a
nd even more” (p. 50).
Emotional intelligence is described as having the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 186). In the 2000 edition of the Handbook of Intelligence emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others. (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000, p. 396; see also Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Emotional intelligence is described as that dimension of intelligence responsible for our ability to manage ourselves and our relationships with others (Lynn, 2002, p. 2).
1.8.4 Emotional quotient: It is an approach to evaluate general emotional intelligence (Bar-On, 1997).
1.8.5 Reading: According to Kim and Anderson (2011, p. 30), “reading is essential for successfully completing all college-level courses. In other words, college students who are more proficient readers are most likely to experience more success in their courses”.
Chastain (1988) defines reading as a receptive decoding language process. In the mean time, Nuttall (1996) believes that the view of reading is fundamentally related to meaning, particularly with the transfer of meaning from mind to mind i.e., the transfer of a message from writer to reader.
1.8.6 Reading Comprehension: Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van denBroek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994).
Comprehension is a highly complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between the reader and the text to create meaning (National Reading Panel, 2000). In other words, comprehension doesn’t just happen; it requires effort. Readers must intentionally and purposefully work to create meaning from what they read.
As Rahmani & Sadeghi, (2011) defined, reading comprehension is commonly known as an interactive mental process between a reader’s linguistic knowledge, knowledge of the world, and knowledge about a given topic.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami, (2006) believe that reading comprehension can be defined as one’s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.
Review of the Related Literature
Emotional intelligence is thought to play a critical role in determining one`s success in life (Goleman, 1995).
Reading comprehension can be defined as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use (Souvignier & Moklesgerami, 2006).
This chapter is going to discuss both the concepts of Emotional Intelligence and Reading comprehension first separately and then in relation to each other based on the data gathered from different articles in this area.
2.2 Emotional Intelligence
2.2.1 A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence
Since the mid-1990s, emotional intelligence has received the greatest attention in practitioner and academic literatures. Emotional Intelligence (EI), a concept which is rooted in the theory of social intelligence, is defined in different ways. Although, many have regarded the concept of emotional intelligence as new, its historical roots are well embedded in psychological thought over the past century.
As Goleman (1995) proposes emotional intelligence plays a critical role in determining one`s success in life. At the most general level according to