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It is worth mentioning that emotional intelligence is the foundation for critical skills and can be increased by practice (2012
Weissinger (1998) proposes that emotional intelligence is derived from four basic elements that operate like the building blocks of DNA. These elements enable one to develop specific skills and abilities, which are the basis of emotional intelligence. In Salovey and Mayer’s earlier work (1990), emotional intelligence is defined according to the abilities involved in it. One of their first definitions of emotional intelligence was “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 186). Salovey and Mayer maintain that this and other earlier definitions now seem vague in places and impoverished in the sense that they talk only about perceiving and regulating emotion, and omit thinking about feelings. As a result of this vagueness, Salovey and Sluyter (1997) provided a revision. The revision is as follows:
The ability to accurately perceive, appraise, and express emotion
b) The ability to access or generate feelings on demand when they facilitate understanding of one’s self or another person
c) The ability to understand emotions and the knowledge that derives from them
d) The ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (p.10). 2.3 Models of Emotional Intelligence:
There are three main models of emotional intelligence:
2.3.1 Ability Model
Since the emergence of EI in 1990s, the concept of emotional intelligence has generated interest in both the popular media and scientific circle, leading to several definitions and two general competing models of EQ. In an initial theoretical paper, an ability model of emotional intelligence was introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and a two-part approach was used by them, speaking was the first of the general processing of emotional information and specifying the skills involved in such processing was the second. This model considers emotional intelligence as a pure form of mental ability with personality characteristics such as optimism and well-being (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999). The ability based model views emotions as useful information that helps a person to understand his social environment (Salovey & Grewal, 2005). According to Salovey and Mayer (1990) this ability based model consists of four parts: Emotional Perception and Expression, Use of Emotions, Emotional understanding, and Emotional Management.
By 1997 and 1999, Mayer and Salovey, together with Caruso, expanded on this ability-based definition while keeping its two-part form and defined emotional intelligence as (Mayer et al. 1999: 267): ” An ability to recognize the meaning of emotions and their relationships and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them, the capacity to perceive emotions, assimilate emotion related feelings, and understand the information of those emotions and manage them”. After the modern field of emotional intelligence saw its first scientific publication in early 1990s, some other researchers including Goleman (1995) and Cooper (1996-1997) expanded the meaning of emotional intelligence by explicitly mixing the ability to understand and process emotion with other diverse parts of personality or skills; hence creating mixed approaches to emotional intelligence. Thus, emotional intelligence is said to be more like ‘character’. 2.3.2 Mixed Model
Goleman (2001) suggested a mixed model in terms of performance, integrating individuals’ abilities and personalities, and using their effects in work place. Goleman’s mixed model (1998) includes four constructs: Self-awareness, Self-management, Social awareness, and Relationship management. Goleman (1995), who commercially popularized the concept, identified five domains of EQ:
a) knowing one’s emotion, b) managing emotion, c) motivating oneself, d) recognizing emotions in others, and e) handling relationships. To him, a person with higher emotional intelligence should become happier, more optimistic, motivated and outgoing. In a rather similar manner, Cooper and Oriolio, who defined emotional intelligence as a mix of mental and non-mental abilities, divided emotional intelligence into five general attributes in a measure called EQ-Map, which has provided an approach to identify one’s strength and vulnerability and targeted specific actions to be taken (Cooper 1996/1997).
So, there are some differences between the ability and mixed approaches towards emotional intelligence. According to Mayer (2001), mixed approaches claim a stronger predictive power for success, but the ability model only offers potentiality. That is, being emotionally intelligent in the ability model does not mean that a learner will necessarily succeed in school. Also, having high EQ in the ability model appears relatively independent of most personality characteristics such as extroversion or optimism; EQ scores, as Ciarrochi et al. (2001) state, might correlate more with some traits and less with others. In spite of the differences, both the ability and mixed approaches of EQ share a similar intention: to understand how an individual perceives and regulates his or her emotions. 2.3. 3 Trait Model
Petrides and Furnham (2001) identified 15 components via content analysis of the existing models of emotional intelligence. These components according to Petrides, Furnham, & Fredrickson (2004) are as follows:
Adaptability, Assertiveness, Emotion Expression, Emotion management (others), Emotion perception (self and others), Emotion regulation, Impulsiveness (low), Relationship skills, Self-esteem, Selfmotivation, Social competence, Stress management, Trait empathy, Trait happiness, and Trait optimism.
Wolfradt, Felfe, Koster (2001-2002) in two studies revealed that emotional intelligence is mainly associated with personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, self-perceived creativity), life satisfaction and thinking styles with only a low relation to verbal intelligence. Furthermore, people higher in the emotional intelligence dimension, emotional efficacy, produced more creative performances than those lower in this domain.
Aristotle argued that intellect was reliable while emotion was too undependable to be of much use to rational thought (Bar-on & Parker 2000). 2.4 Basic Criteria
Gardner (1993) developed a set of criteria to determine what set of skills make up an intelligence. Here are listed the key points:
1. Potential isolation as a brain function / potential isolation by brain damage.
2. Existence of prodigies, savants, and other exceptional individuals.
3. An identifiable core operation or set of operations.
4. A distinctive developmental history, along with a definable set of expert ‘end state’ performances.
5. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
6. Support from experimental psychological tasks.
7. Support from psychometric findings.
8. Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system.
2.5 Theoretical Considerations
The definitions of the terms Emotion and Intelligence and also 15 sub categories of Bar-on’s EI are presented below: 2.5.1 Emotion
Emotions are recognized as one of the three or four fundamental classes of mental operations. These classes include motivation, emotion, cognition, and (less frequently) consciousness (Bain, 1855/1977; Izard, 1993; MacLean, 1973; Mayer, 1995a, 1995b; Plutchik, 1984; Tomkins, 1962; see Hilgard, 1980; Mayer, Chabot, & Carlsmith, 1997, for reviews). As cited by John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey, David R. Caruso, and Lillia Cherkasskiy (2011), ” among the triad of motivation, emotion, and cognition, basic motivations arise in response to internal bodily states and include drives such as hung er, thirst, need for social contact, and sexual desires”. Motivations are responsible for directing the organism to carry out simple acts so as to satisfy survival and reproductive needs. In their basic form, motivations follow a relatively determined time course (e.g., thirst rises until quenched) and are typically satisfied in a specific fashion (e.g., thirst is satisfied by drinking fluids). Emotions form the second class of this triad. Emotions appear to have evolved across mammalian species so as to signal and respond to changes in relationships between the individual and the environment (including one’s imagined place within it). For example, anger arises in response to perceived threat or injustice; fear arises in response to perceived danger. Emotions respond to perceived changes in relationships. Moreover, each emotion organizes several basic behavioral responses to the relationship; for example, fear organizes freezing or fleeing. It seems that emotions are therefore more flexible than motivations, though not quite so flexible as cognition. Cognition, the third member of the triad, allows the organism to learn from the environment and to solve problems in novel situations. This is often in the service of satisfying motives or keeping emotions positive. Cognition includes learning, memory, and problem solving. It is ongoing, and involves flexible, intentional information processing based on learning and memory (see Mayer et al., 1997, for a review of these concepts). So, the term emotional intelligence, then, implies something having to do with the intersection of emotion and cognition. 2.5.2 Intelligence
Intelligence, has undergone different changes, from intelligence as a one-dimensional concept (Binet, 1905) to intelligence as a multiple concept (Gardner, 1983), and finally to intelligence as an emotional notion (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
From the 1900s, when Alfred Binet, in response to a request by a French public school for a test that could identify children at risk of falling behind their peers in academic achievement, designed the first intelligence test and Lewis Terman (1916) coined the term “intelligence quotient” (IQ), the conceptions of intelligence have undergone different changes. The early designers of intelligence tests focused just on cognitive abilities such as memory and problem-solving. For instance, Binet equated intelligence with the abilities of logic and language. In fact, in the first half of the 20th century, IQ tests were considered enough measures of intelligence. Society linked IQ scores to an individual’s potential for success in life (Wechsler, 1958).
Wechsler believed that intelligence was “the ability of the person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” (as cited in Wallace et al., 1992, p. 105). Intelligence is the ability of an individual to adapt adequately to relatively new situations in life (Pinter, 1921). As Razmjoo (September 2008) cited, Gardner (1983, p.81) defines “intelligence as the ability to solve problems or to create fashion products that are valued within one or more cultural settings”. Ceci (1994) asserts that ” intelligence refers to multiple innate abilities, which serve as a range of possibilities. It is also postulated that these abilities develop or fail to develop, or develop and later regress, depending upon motivation and exposure to relevant educational experiences” (Gregory, 2000, pp. 139-149). Despite the diverse definitions of intelligence, experts are in agreement that intelligence is having the ability to learn from one’s experience and to adapt to one’s environment. It is worth mentioning that intelligence is often thought to be one of the most significant predictors of language learning success (GU, 2003).
A number of critics have challenged the relevance of psychometric intelligence in the concept of everyday life. They believe that IQ tests did not measure creativity, character, personality, or other]]>